Does ICT facilitate or impede rural youth migration in Indonesia?
It is common for rural Indonesian youths to migrate to cities or foreign countries to obtain jobs or educational opportunities. Losing these young villagers leads to decreases in vital rural development. Indonesia contains the largest population of Internet users even though the rate of Internet penetration is below Southeast Asian averages. Recent academic studies have revealed that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) impacts youth migration intentions. However, this discussion can be divided into two categories, as follows: 1) ICT facilitates emigration by providing increased opportunities for users to obtain information about the living conditions in target locations or by facilitating communication with people in their distant home villages. 2) ICT impedes emigration by enabling more active communication and providing increased opportunities for users to obtain information about available jobs within the village. However, there is insufficient evidence from Southeast Asian countries to support either position. This study therefore conducted a questionnaire survey in the village of Tumpukrenteng in Malang Regency, Indonesia to analyze the interrelationship between ICT use and migration intentions. A total of 60 people emigrated from Tumpukrenteng in 2015. However, 61 people immigrated into the village during the same period. After obtaining data from 142 youths under 25 years of age, we found that approximately 25% of respondents had migration intentions. There was no clear difference between the migration intentions of those who were Internet users and those who were not. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that the migration intentions of Internet users were influenced by age, experience, Internet use frequency, degree of happiness, and frequency of communication.
Bank Indonesia. (2017). Indonesian Financial Statistics https://www.bi.go.id/id/statistik/seki/terkini/eksternal/Contents/Default.aspx. Last Accessed 1 May 2018.
Cooke, T., & Shuttleworth, I., (2018). The effects of information and communication technologies on residential mobility and migration. Popul Space Place, Vol. 24, pp.1-11.
Dekker, R., & Engbersen, G. (2014). How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration. Global Networks, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.401–418. Wiley.
Demiralp, B. (2010). The Impact of Information on Migration Outcomes. Old Dominion University.
Hampton, K., Goulet, L. S., Rainie, L., & Purcell, K. (2011). Social Networking Sites and Our Lives. http://www.pewinternet.org/2011/06/16/social-networking-sites-and-our-lives. Last Accessed 1 May 2018.
De Jong, G. F., Root, B., Gardner, R., Fawcett, J., & Abad, R. (1985). Migration intentions and behavior: Decision making in a rural Philippine province. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, Nos. 1-2, pp.41–62.
De Jong, Gordon F. (2000). Expectations, gender and norms in migration decision-making. Population Studies, pp.117-141.
Ettema, D. (2010). The impact of telecommuting on residential relocation and residential preferences: A latent class modeling approach. Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol. 3.
Farré, L. & Fasani, F. (2013). Media exposure and internal migration — Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 102, pp.48-61.
Hidayat, R., Surjon, S., & Kurniawan, E. (2011). Pengaruh Keberadaan Kampung Inggris Terhadap Guna Lahan dan Sosial ekonomi Masyarakat di Desa Tulung Rejo dan Desa Pelem, Kabupaten Kediri. Jurnal Tata Kota dan Daerah, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.11-18.
Gödri, I., & Feleky, G. (2014). Migration intentions–between dreams and definite plans. The impact of life-course events on different types of migration potential. In proceedings of European Population Conference 2014, pp.1-4.
Kley, S., & Mulder, C. H. (2010). Considering, planning, and realizing migration in early adulthood. The influence of life-course events and perceived opportunities on leaving the city in Germany. In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, Vol. 25, pp.73-9.
Kley, S. (2011). Explaining the stages of migration within a life-course framework. European sociological review, Vol. 27, pp.468-486.
McGregor, E., & Siegel, M. (2013). Social Media and Migration Research. Maastricht: UNU-MERIT and MGSoG.
Moon, J., Park, J., Jung, G. H., & Choe, Y. C. (2010). The impact of IT use on migration intentions in rural communities. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 77, No. 8, pp.1401-1411.
Muta'ali, L. (2013). Pengembangan Wilayah Perdesaan (Perspektif Keruangan). Yogyakarta: Badan Penerbit Fakultas Geografi UGM.
Onitsuka, K., Hidayat, R., & Huang, W., (2018). Challenges for the next level of digital divide in rural Indonesian communities. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol. 84, pp.1-25.
Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. New York: Basic Books.
Papapanagos, H., & Sanfey, P. (2001). Intention to Emigrate in Transition Countries: The Case of Albania. In: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 14, pp.491-504.
Prayitno, G., Matsushima, K., Jeong, H., & Kobayashi, K. (2014). Social Capital and Migration in Rural Area Development. Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 20, pp.543–552.
Sandu, D. & De Jong, G. F. (1996): Migration in market and Democracy Transition: migration intentions and behaviors in Romania. In: Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, pp.437-457
Statistics Indonesia. (2016a). Percentage of Population Aged 5 Years and Over Who Ever Accessing Internet in the Last 3 Months by Urban Rural Classification, 2010−2015. https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2013/02/20/880/persentase-penduduk-usia-5-tahun-ke-atas-yang-pernah-mengakses-internet-dalam-3-bulan-terakhir-menurut-klasifikasi-daerah-2010-2015.html
Statistics Indonesia (2016b). Turen Subdistrict in Figures 2016. https://malangkab.bps.go.id/publication/2016/12/23/d62ae8efbce6268db829de93/kecamatan-turen-dalam-angka-2016.html
Thulin, E., & Vilhelmson, B. (2014). Virtual Practices and Migration Plans: a Qualitative Study of Urban Young Adults. Population, Space and Place, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp.389–401.
Van Dijk, J. A. (2006). Digital Divide Research, Achievements and Shortcomings. Poetics, Vol. 34, Nos. 4-5, pp.221-235.
Vilhelmson, B. & Thulin, E. (2013). Does the Internet encourage people to move? Investigating Swedish young adults’ internal migration experiences and plans. Geoforum, Vol. 47, pp.209–216.
We are social. (2017). Digital in Southeast Asia in 2017. https://wearesocial.com/special-reports/digital-southeast-asia-2017. Last Accessed 1 May 2018.
Wellman, B., Haase, A. Q., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment. American behavioral scientist, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp.436-455.
Williams, D. (2006). On and off the ’Net: Scales for social capital in an online era. Journal of computer-mediated communication, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.593-628.